Raudenbush, S.W., & Willms, D.J. (1995).
The estimation of school effects. Journal of Educational and Behavioral
Statistics, 20(4) (winter), 307-336.
The article presents a statistical model that
defines two different types of school effects: one appropriate for parents
choosing schools for their children, the second for agencies evaluating
school practice. A quasi-experimental study design is applied to data
collected in Scotland. The researchers conclude with a general discussion
of the larger role of school evaluation that supports school improvement.